Intervals Series Part 5: Summary of Intervals Series

 

After starting out very basic with a simple Major scale in lesson 1 we formed a more complicated list of the Chromatic 
Interval Names.

Before moving on I'd like to recap some things just so you don't forget them.

Terms:

Intervals - An Interval is the space between two notes. Intervals are named, Half-step = H = one fret on the guitar, 
and Whole-step = W = two frets on the guitar. One Whole-step is equal to two Half-steps.

Intervals of a Major Scale - W W H W W W H

Natural Named Notes- Note that are named as plain old, or straight, A, B, C, D, etc... Nothing fancy just the 
staight letter.

Sharped Note - # = Sharp. Means to raise a Natural Note Name by one fret. Raising A up one fret equals A#.

Flatted Note - b = Flat. Mean to lower a Natural Note Name by one fret. Lowering A down one fret equals Ab.

Enharmonic Note - No Harmonic difference. Meaning that a Sharped or Flatted note are the same pitch, or the same fret 
on the guitar. Raising A one fret equals A#, lowering B one fret equals Bb. But both of these note produce the same sound 
and can be located at the same fret on the guitar. So the Note Name between A and B could be called A#/Bb. They are 
different names, but there is no harmonic difference as they produce the same pitch.

Cycle of Notes - Musical notes are named A, B, C, D, E, F, G, there is no H. I , J, etc...note names. Since the notes 
go from A to G the next note after G is A again, as in:

A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C etc...it just keeps repeating the Cycle.

The Cycle of Notes and their Intervals using only Natural Note Names:

A B C D E F G A 
\ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ /
W H W W H W W ....repeat

Key to memorizing: Every note listed above is a Whole-step from each other except B to C, and E to F. Both of these are a 
Half-step from each other.

The Cycle of Notes with all the Natural Notes and the Enharmonic Notes is known as the Chromatic Scale. We call a series of notes moving in sequential Half
-steps a Chromatic Scale...

A     A#/Bb     B      C    C#/Db       D       D#/Eb       E       F        F#/Gb      G     G#/Ab      A 
   \   /          \   /   \    /  \   /          \     /   \    /           \    /   \     /  \      /           \   /   \  /           \   /          repeat...
    H            H      H     H             H       H              H       H       H              H     H             H

In this list all the Natural Notes have a Enharmonic Note between them except for B to C, and E to F.

This list contains all 12 notes equaling a full Octave.

Octave - When notes are 12 Half-steps away from each other. When you repeat the Cycle of Notes you are repeating the 
same Note Names but in a different Octave. They are the same Note Name just different in pitch.

Interval Names - Starting with the Major scale we were able to starting looking at notes and Intervals in 
relationship to a Root note. Then through a long process we ended up with a very complicated list of notes the name the 
Intervals using a Chromatic scale. In essence, we gave an Interval Name to every note on the fretboard in relationship to the 
Root of C. And, some of those Intervals have a few different names, or where Enharmonic.

Note Name:      C      C#/Db      D       D#/Eb            E              F              F#/Gb         G          G#/Ab          A               A#/Bb      B      C
Interval Name:   R       b2/b9     2/9      #9-b3     M3-b4/b11    4/11       #4/#11-b5       5       #5-b6/b13      6/13-bb7        b7       M7     R

Chords - The result of three or more notes played together as one.

Stacking Thirds - A method used for creating Chords. The process of using every other note in a Major Scale build Chords. Or, counting every three notes in the Major Scale. "Every other" note is also the same as "Every Third" note. When these notes are played together they create chords.

Triad - A chord consisting of three notes. Two type are the Major and Minor chords.

Extended Chords - Chords consisting of more than three notes but based off the Major, Minor, or Dominant Chord 
Families.

Add Chords- Taking a Triad and simply adding a note or two to it.

Chord Families - These Families were mentioned and some in detail: Major, Minor, Dominant, and Add Chords.

Chord Formulas - We looked at how musicians might list out the notes included in certain chords. The Formulas list the 
Interval Name in relationship to the Root. So if given a Formula and a chosen Root, you should be able to build or find the 
notes by name that are included in the chord.

Major Chord/Triad = R M3 5
Minor Chord/Triad = R b3 5
maj7 Extended Chord = R M3 5 M7
m7 Extended Chord = R b3 5 b7
7 Dominant Chord = R M3 5 b7

Major Add Chords = R M3 5 + whichever notes is labeled.
Add6 Chords = R M3 5 + 6
Add9 Chords = R M3 5 + 9
Add6/9 Chords = R M3 5 + 6 and 9

Minor Add Chords = R b3 5 + whichever notes is labeled.
mAdd6 Chords = R b3 5 + 6
mAdd9 Chords = R b3 5 + 9
mAdd6/9 Chords = R b3 5 + 6 and 9

This is just to name a few.

Where to go now that this Series is completed - If you are comfortable with this information, you are primed and ready to move on to an in-depth look at Chord Building.

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